What is over-the-counter medications?

Over-the-Counter Medications
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Over-the-counter medicines

Medicines you can buy without a prescription are called nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. They may be taken to treat minor health problems at home.

Examples of over-the-counter medicines are acetaminophen, aspirin, antacids, decongestants, antihistamines, and laxatives.

How can you safely take over-the-counter medicines?

Before using over-the-counter medicines, be sure you know the benefits and side effects of a medicine. Use medicines only if non-medicine approaches are not working.

These steps can help you stay safe when taking over-the-counter medicine.

  • Carefully read and follow all directions on the medicine bottle and box.
  • Take the minimum effective dose. When using a liquid medicine, use the measuring device that comes with the medicine.
  • Call your doctor if you think you are having a problem with your medicine. If you have been told to avoid a medicine, call your doctor before you take it.
  • Do not take a medicine if you have had an allergic reaction to it in the past.
  • If you are or could be pregnant, call your doctor before taking any medicine.
  • Keep a list of all your medicines, including over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and supplements. And share the list with your doctors.

How do you safely give over-the-counter medicines to children?

Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are medicines you can buy without a doctor's prescription. This doesn't mean that OTC medicines are harmless. Like prescription medicines, OTCs can be very dangerous for children if not taken the right way.

Be sure to read the package instructions on OTC medicines carefully. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before giving OTC medicines to young children.

Here are some safety tips for parents and other caregivers.

Be careful when giving medicine to children

  • Don't give children medicines that are meant only for adults. These medicines could cause serious health problems if given to a child. Be sure to read the package instructions or ask a pharmacist before giving any product to a child.
  • Always follow the directions on the "Drug Facts" label. This label tells you how to give the medicine safely and in the right amount. It lists warnings, tells you how often to give the medicine, and helps you know if the medicine is safe for your child.
  • Check the "Active Ingredients" listed on the label. This is what makes the medicine work. If you use two medicines with the same or similar active ingredients, your child could get too much.
  • Talk to your doctor or pharmacist before giving your child more than one OTC medicine at the same time. And find out what vitamins, supplements, foods, or drinks shouldn't be mixed with your child's medicine.
  • Talk to your doctor before you give fever medicine to a baby who is 3 months of age or younger. This is to make sure the baby's fever is not a sign of a serious illness.
  • Don't use ibuprofen if your baby is under 6 months of age unless your doctor tells you to. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not said what is safe for babies that age.
  • Don't give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 unless your doctor tells you to. Aspirin increases the risk of Reye syndrome, a serious illness.
  • Don't take medicine in front of children. Kids will often copy what you do. And never call medicine "candy" to get your kids to take it.
  • Be extra careful with liquid medicines. Infants usually need a different dose than the dose that children need. And some liquid forms are stronger (more concentrated) than others. Always read the label so that you give the right dose.
  • Don't give chewable medicines to children younger than age 3 years. Wait until your child has molars and can chew and swallow safely.

Give the right amount of medicine

  • Always follow directions about your child's age and weight when you are giving a dose. Read the medicine label to find the right amount of medicine for your child's size and weight. Or ask your doctor or pharmacist how much medicine to give your child.
  • When giving medicine, use the tool that comes with the medicine. Some medicines come with a dropper or a dosing cup. Don't use kitchen spoons instead of the tool. Kitchen spoons can be different sizes. If the medicine doesn't come with a tool to give doses, ask your pharmacist for one.
  • Never increase a dose because your child seems sicker than before. If your child isn't getting better, call your doctor.
  • Talk to your child's doctor before switching back and forth between doses of acetaminophen and ibuprofen. When you switch between two medicines, there is a chance your child will get too much medicine.

Store medicines safely

  • Store medicines where children can't see or reach them. Many OTC medicines are colorful, taste good, and can be chewed. Kids may think that these medicines are candy.
  • Use medicines with a childproof cap. Lock the cap after each use by closing it tightly.
  • Don't buy or use medicine from a package that has cuts, tears, a broken seal, or other problems. Check the medicine at home to make sure the color and smell are normal.
  • Check your medicine supply at least once a year. Ask your pharmacist how to get rid of medicines that are past their expiration dates.
  • Store medicines properly. Always store medicines in a cool, dry place or as it says on the label.
  • Keep all medicines in their original containers. This way you avoid giving the wrong medicine by mistake.

Use cough and cold medicines wisely

  • Be careful with cough and cold medicines. Don't give them to children younger than 6. They don't work for children that age and can even be harmful. For children 6 and older, always follow all the instructions carefully. Make sure you know how much medicine to give and how long to use it. And use the dosing device if one is included.
  • Don't give antihistamines to your child unless you've checked with your doctor first. Antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl, for example), are sometimes used in cold medicines, so check for them on the label.
  • Try other home treatments besides medicines. A cool-mist humidifier may help loosen mucus in the nose. Follow the directions for cleaning the machine. Honey or lemon juice in hot water or tea may help a dry cough.
    Do not give honey to a child younger than 1 year.
  • Don't give your child too much acetaminophen or ibuprofen. If you are giving your child fever or pain medicine (such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen), don't give your child a cold or flu medicine that contains the same ingredient. Your child could get too much medicine.

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The content above contains general health information provided by Healthwise, Incorporated, and reviewed by its medical experts. This content should not replace the advice of your healthcare provider. Not all treatments or services described are offered as services by us. For recommended treatments, please consult your healthcare provider.